National Climate Change Policy

National Climate Change Policy


Milestones in Jordan’s Climate Policy


Ratification of the Framework Convention on Climate Change

12 November 1993

Submission of the initial National Communication

06 March 1997

Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol

17 January 2003

Establishment of the CDM –DNA


Submission of the Second National Communication

9 December 2009

Submission of Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)  

4 November 2016

Paris Agreement (Entry into force) 4 December 2016

4 December 2016


The Low Carbon Development context

Key data

  • Total GHG emissions: 20.14 million tonnes (Mt) of CO2 equivalent in 2000
  • Per capita GHG emissions: 4.6 metric tons of CO2 per capita, World Bank 2007
  • Carbon intensity of the economy: 1.13 Kg CO2 / 2005 USD, IEA 2011
  • Carbon intensity of the energy sector: 2.8 t CO2/ toe, IEA 2011
  • Share of renewable energy: 0.10%

A comprehensive National Climate Change Policy for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan bas been launched in 2013, paving the way for the development of a national vision and a comprehensive Climate Change strategy.

Several mitigation options have been identified to minimize dependence on imported energy and maximize security of supply through energy source diversification, reducing energy cost and creating new employment opportunities. The key areas that will receive attention include: (i) fuel switching and introducing natural gas to the national energy system; (ii) the development of renewable energy; (iii) addressing energy efficiency issues through the introduction of a new energy law and an energy efficiency fund providing financial incentives for energy efficient appliances.



A brief identification of the vulnerability to Climate Change has been conducted as part of the 2nd National Communication. Jordan's water and agriculture resources are exposed to increasing climate variability and growing human pressure. Future climate change is considered likely to exacerbate this vulnerability with significant impacts on ecosystems and crucial socio-economic sectors, namely water, agriculture and health.

Jordan is one of the three driest countries in the world. The scarcity of water is the single most important constraint for growth and development as water is not only a key factor for food production but also for health and social and economic development. Indeed, the country’s remarkable development achievements are under threat due to the crippling water scarcity, which is expected to be aggravated by climate change.

Despite the Government’s efforts in managing the limited water resources and its relentless search for alternative supply, the available water resources per capita are falling as a result of population growth. It is projected that the population will continue to grow from about 5.87 million in the year 2008 to over 7.8 million by the year 2022. Annual per capita water availability has declined from 3600 m3/year in the year 1946 to 145 m3/year in the year 2008; this is far below the international water poverty line of 500 m3/year.

Recognizing the magnitude of threat of water scarcity, the government has developed a comprehensive water strategy entitled “Water for Life” for the period 2008 to 2022. This strategy defines the long term goals that the Jordanian government seeks to achieve in the water sector. It mainly focuses on effective water demand management, water supply operations and institutional reform.